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饮食与健康         ★★★
 
饮食与健康  
 
作者:温岭中学 文章来源:温岭中学 点击数: 更新时间:2008/6/28 20:09:43  
 
   饮食与健康

班级:200610C2

课题名称:饮食与健康

负责人闻佳媚

课题组成员闻佳媚(组长) 蔡佳音 周婷 孙珊珊 朱罗佳

指导老师蔡海勇(物理老师)

主导学科:生物

非主导学科语文,化学,生活

中文摘要:鸡蛋中的胆固醇,跟平日所指的对身体有害的胆固醇其实没关系,因为有害胆固醇是由饱和脂肪转化而成,虽然鸡蛋含少量饱和脂肪,但鸡蛋中的胆固醇是可以被人体消化;再加上鸡蛋中其中一种成分———卵磷脂可以中和有害胆固醇,所以吃得鸡蛋多不会令胆固醇过高。

许多国家自古以来就称鱼是可使人聪明的食物;中国民间也传说吃鱼可以健脑。鱼含动物蛋白和钙、磷及维生素A、D、B1、B2等物质,比猪肉、鸡肉等动物肉类都高,且易为人体消化吸收,其吸收率高达96%。由于鱼肉肌纤维较细,有多量可溶性成胶物质,结构柔软,这些就更适合病人、中老年人和儿童食用。

一般人都说,鱼身上最好吃的是“眼睛”,鱼眼不仅味道好,而且营养丰富,不输于鱼肉。鱼眼球内侧含有丰富的维生素A、B1和B2,特别是迦纳鱼的眼球,含有大量的各种维生素,将迦纳鱼的眼球用盐水腌,或把鱼眼和鱼骨头一起煮汤,营养价值都是最高的。

菠菜的营养很丰富,它含有多量矿物质及维生素,特别适合儿童食用,对小朋友的骨骼成长绝对有帮助。
儿童易受到大气污染、射线及各种化学物质的伤害,在体内产生带电荷的自由基,这种自由基会损害细胞,使人体重要器官丧失部分功能,记忆力减退,学习成绩下降,而菠菜中的抗氧化剂能吸收有害的自由基,从而使人体生长发育正常。

在冬天,吃以下食物最容易发生食物中毒:
1、大棚培育的蔬菜水果。大棚种植的植物对农药需要量较大,再加上冬季寒冷,植物进行光合作用时不能完全将农药吸收,所以,清洗不净会导致冬季吃蔬菜水果时农药中毒。
2、腐烂的白菜。大白菜的叶子中含有较多的硝酸盐,腐烂后其含量会明显增高。一旦大量进食,经肠道细菌作用,会还原成亚硝酸盐而发生中毒。主要表现为头晕、呕吐等,严重的会出现呼吸困难、血压下降。为防止中毒,应避免蔬菜在高温下长时间堆放。
3、生豆浆。其中含有一种有毒的胰蛋白酶抑制物,饮用后容易中毒。所以,豆浆一定要彻底煮熟后饮用。需要提醒的是,豆浆加热到一定程度后会出现泡沫,这并不意味着它已经煮熟了,应继续加热5—10分钟,至泡沫消失才可饮用。
4、发芽或未成熟的马铃薯。其中含有有毒物质龙葵素,摄入后易引起中毒。冬天应把马铃薯贮藏在低温、无阳光直接照射的地方;烧煮时可加入少许的醋,能够破坏毒素。
5、霉变甘蔗。其毒性非常强,进食2—8小时后会出现呕吐、头晕、头痛等症状,严重者还会昏迷、呼吸衰竭,病死率及出现后遗症率达50%,目前尚无有效治疗措施。

……

英文摘要:

Don't be swayed by claims like 'fat-free' and 'only 50 calories'. Look for what they don't tell you and try to compare them with similar products to make sure they're not giving the misleading impression that they’re healthier than they really are.

Some 'healthy' ready meals are high in salt - sometimes higher than the standard version. Low-fat desserts can be full of sugar. Don't assume household brand-names or economy packs compare unfavourably with supposedly 'healthier' foods either. A Sainsbury's 'Be Good to Yourself' range Balance breakfast cereal boasts less than three per cent fat, but ordinary cornflakes contain half as much. And both Shredded Wheat and Weetabix have more than twice as much fibre as Balance has.

An EU-wide review of food labelling aims to tighten up inconsistencies that allow products that are high in salt to boast that they're low-fat, for example, as well as banning health claims that don't have scientific backing. According to a new European regulation that has been in effect in the UK since 1 July 2007, health claims should only be authorised if they are clearly understood by the average consumer.

By the time the legislation comes into force in 2009, food producers must be able to prove to the European Food Safety Authority that any claims can be backed up by evidence. Products that are high in calcium, for instance, can legitimately claim that calcium is good for bones. Oats have been shown to help reduce cholesterol as part of a low-fat diet and this claim could be made on a product. There is nothing in the legislation specifically covering claims for omega-3.

Ready, steady, go for low

The Government wants to help consumers make healthy choices, and that's why it's encouraging a labelling system designed to show at a glance what's in the food. The 'traffic light' scheme marks the salt, sugar and fat content of the food in red if it's high, green for low and amber for medium.

The colour code has been adopted by Sainsbury's, the Co-op, Marks and Spencer, Asda and Waitrose on their own-brand ready meals, pizzas, soups and other convenience foods, making comparison between dishes easier and helping shoppers switch from high-fat, salty ready meals. However, Tesco and some food manufacturers have introduced their own rival labelling system showing the calories, sugars, fats and salt as a percentage of the guideline daily allowance (GDA) of each in a serving.

However, there's no quick-to-spot colour code to show whether the fat, sugar or salt content is considered high, making it harder to see how meals compare. Serving sizes may be unrealistically small, too, so it's often difficult to get a true picture of the fat, salt or calorie content in a portion. You have to look closely to discover that Tesco's 'Healthy Living' chicken jalfrezi contains 38 per cent of the guideline daily amount of salt while its 'Healthy Living' turkey, tomato and lettuce sandwich has 35 per cent of the salt GDA.

1. Start with exercise. A healthy diet is built on a base of regular exercise, which keeps calories in balance and weight in check. 

2. Focus on food, not grams. The Healthy Eating Pyramid doesn’t worry about specific servings or grams of food, so neither should you. It’s a simple, general guide to how you should eat when you eat.

3. Go with plants. Eating a plant-based diet is healthiest.  Choose plenty of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and healthy fats, like olive and canola oil.

4. Cut way back on American staples. Red meat, refined grains, potatoes, sugary drinks, and salty snacks are part of American culture, but they’re also really unhealthy. Go for a plant-based diet rich in non-starchy vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. And if you eat meat, fish and poultry are the best choices.

5. Take a multivitamin, and maybe have a drink. Taking a multivitamin can be a good nutrition insurance policy. Moderate drinking for many people can have real health benefits, but it's not for everyone. Those who don’t drink shouldn’t feel that they need to start. For more information, read "Alcohol: Balancing Risks and Benefits."

 

关键词饮食与健康

要解决的问题:饮食与健康的关系,如何正确饮食

问题假设:良好的饮食习惯有利于身体健康,中学生应该养成良好的饮食习惯

基本方法资料查阅法 访谈法 问卷调查法

基本过程

时间

任务

目标

方法

第6、7周

确定课题

按时、具体、有意义

资料查询

8、9周

开题报告

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